Kidney Transplantation Process
What is a kidney transplant?
In a living transplant, the receptor gets a kidney from a healthy living donor.
In some situations, the person can get one or two kidneys from a deceased donor. Usually, doctors won’t remove the diseased Kidney. Instead, they will do the transplantation of Kidney in the lower belly on the front side of the body.
Why did the Kidney fail?
Kidney failure may result from repetitive urinary infections. Glomerulonephritis is a condition resulting from the inflammation of the filtering unit of the Kidney. As a result, it leads to kidney failure. Even diabetes or high blood pressure can lead to loss of the Kidney.
Also, inherited disorders can be a cause. It includes Polycystic kidney disease or congenital disabilities resulting in intense kidney failure. A rare condition named Hemolytic uremic syndrome can lead to kidney failure. Other causes are lupus, diseases in the immune system, and obstructions.
kidney transplantation ? why it fails
When the kidneys start failing to filter waste from the blood, waste builds up in your body. Also, it maintains the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. In the case of kidney failure, people usually undergo dialysis in the initial stage. It is a method of mechanically filtering the waste that builds up in the bloodstream.
In severe cases, doctors choose a kidney transplant as the best option. Dialysis takes much time, frequent visits to dialysis centers, and is labor-intensive. In the case of a kidney transplant, there is no dependence on any machines. It gives more extended, active, and healthy life.
need for a kidney
Usually, doctors prefer kidney transplants only in the end stage of renal disease. This means That it indicates a permanent condition of kidney failure. In such a case, it hampers all the functions of the Kidney because the Kidney performs multiple functions.
It removes urea from the blood, formed from breaking the protein in the body. Thus, The kidneys excrete this area in the form of urine. Kidneys play a vital role in balancing electrolytes and salts in the body. It aids in the formation of red blood cells by producing erythropoietin.
Furthermore, it helps in regulating blood pressure. Fluid and acid-base balance are necessary for the body to keep it neutral. Kidneys achieve this neutral balance and carry out the normal functions.
Risks of kidney failure
Every surgery has its own complications. Similarly, this kidney transplant also has its own risks. Some common complications are Bleeding, Infection, Blockage of the blood vessels to the new Kidney. Leakage of urine or blockage of urine in the ureter also happens.
Rejection is a normal reaction by the body to any foreign object. Likewise, the receptor may reject the new Kidney. Immunosuppressant drugs suppress these rejection reactions. These medicines have side effects depending on the specific type of drugs. Besides the attack by the immune system, sometimes, the new Kidney may not function properly.
Who is not eligible for a kidney transplant?
Everyone cannot undergo a kidney transplant. Kidney transplant has its own limitations. For instance, People having infections that are recurrent and have no effective treatment are not accepted. Cancer patients whose cancer has spread to different parts are void of the list.
For patients with severe heart problems, doctors consider it unsafe to undergo a kidney transplant. People having other serious illnesses like kidney disease should think before taking a kidney transplant. Because curing other diseases is not possible after a kidney transplant.
Preparing for a transplant
Extensive testing is done before a kidney transplant. A transplant team carries out the evaluation process for a kidney. This team includes a surgeon, dietician, anaesthesiologist, nephrologists, and psychologist.
The evaluation includes blood tests, diagnostic tests, and mental health evaluation.
Kidney transplantation steps
This kidney transplant surgery requires a hospital stay. There are Various procedures to follow, depending on the patient’s condition. The various steps are as follows.
Initially, they give patients the hospital gowns. An intravenous (IV) line is put in the arm. They also put Many catheters in the neck and wrist to monitor heart status. They monitor Blood pressure status also. Doctors insert Some more catheters in the sides of collarbones and groin blood vessels.
Ongoing surgery steps
First, they shave off the Hair in the surgical place. Next, they insert A urinary catheter to collect the urine from the bladder. The patient is positioned on the operation table.
The surgery takes place with the help of general anesthesia. They attach A ventilator via a tube for breathing. An anesthesiologist continuously monitors the patient’s heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level.
First, the skin in the surgical site is cleaned off with an antiseptic solution. They do An inspection of the donor’s Kidney by making a long incision in the lower abdomen. Then, the donor’s Kidney is placed inside the belly.
They place the Right donor kidney on the left side. Also, they place the Left donor kidney on the right side. Such a method is followed to allow the ureter to easily connect to the bladder. Finally, they sew the renal artery and vein to the iliac artery and vein.
Next, inspection for any bleeding is checked along the blood vessels. If no bleeding, the donor ureter is connected to the bladder, and the incision is closed with stitches or surgical staples. In order to reduce the swelling, they place a drain in the incision. On the top, they apply a sterile bandage or dressing.
Once they finish the surgery, they shift the patient to the recovery room. They do close monitoring until the blood pressure, pulse, and breathing are stable. Every kidney transplant requires a stay in the hospital for several days.
A kidney from a living donor works right away. But, if it is from a cadaver, they do dialysis until urine output is normal. The catheter in the bladder drains the urine. From this amount of urine discharged, doctors monitor the working of the new Kidney.IV fluids are given until the patient is able to eat and drink. Doctors closely watch the Reactions of anti-rejection medicines.