Detail study about Vitamins B

about Vitamin B

Everything You Should Know about Vitamin B

Vitamins are the essential dietary requirement for the body. A polish biochemist Casimir (kazimierz) funk in 1912 brought up the concept of vitamin which is also said to be the “vital amine”. Vitamin B or Vitamin B complex is water soluble and has a vital role in the functioning of the cells.

Vitamin B consists of:

  • Thiamine                                                     (vitamin B1)
  • Riboflavin                                                    (vitaminB2)
  • Niacin                                                           (vitamin B3)
  • Pantothenic acid                                         (vitamin B5)
  • Pyridoxine                                                    (vitamin B6)
  • Biotin                                                             (vitamin B7)
  • Folic acid                                                       (vitamin B9)
  • Cobalamin                                                     (vitamin B12).

Brief History

Dutch Military physician Christiaan Eijkman led to the discovery of vitamin B1. At that time he was investigating beriberi, a disease that causes extreme weakness for a person. His discovery occurred when the chickens kept for experiment were fed with the staple food from the camp which made them recover from the symptoms shown. Thiamine (Vitamin B1) was discovered in 1897 but was isolated in the year of 1926. Gerrit Grijns in 1896 gave an idea about the presence of complex substances which are present. Later in 1936 Thiamine was made as a dietary supplement.

ABOUT  VITAMIN B2                       

Meerwein and R.Kuhn in the year early 1930s. The biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912, who was on the study of beriberi, had found the compound Niacin(vitamin B3). His discovery was later connected by the Physician Joseph Goldeberger who found out about the nicotinic acid that had caused the deficiency that led to the outbreak of pellagra.

ABOUT  VITAMIN B5

Later Conrad Arnold Elvehjem discovered the chemical structure in 1937 and isolated from the active liver the P-P factor  that was the nicotinic acid named Niacin. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) derived from a Greek word “From Everywhere” was discovered in the year 1933 by Roger J.Williams. It was also proved that this vitamin was required for the growth of yeast. Also Elvehjem , Juke  also showed that it was an anti dermatitis for animals.

A Hungarian physician Paul Gyorgy in the year 1934 discovered Vitamin B6. It was able to cure the skin diseases in rats.later it was isolated by Samuel Lepkovsky in 1938 and Snell in 1945 showed the two forms that are the pyridoxamine and pyridoxa

ABOUT VITAMIN B7

Vincent du Vigneaud synthesized vitamin B7( Biotin) in 1942. At first , It was named as vitamin H. M.A Boas demonstrated the requirement of biotin which he called as a protective factor x.Later it was known that protective factor x and Vitamin H was a similar compound. Researcher Lucy Wills discovered Folic Acid

ABOUT VITAMIN B9

(vitamin B9) in the 1920s. She found out the importance of folic acid in pregnant women. It was found to prevent anemia during pregnancy.

Cobalamin(vitamin B12) was discovered after the case of pernicious anemia described by william osler and william Gardner. In the 1920s George Whipple found the cure of anemia and Edward prepared this liver extract  to treat pernicious anemia. later willian castle explained it as an intrinsic factor for digestion.

ABOUT VITAMIN B12

The study of Vitamin B12 was prominently titled to the five nobel prize people that are George Whipple, George Minot and William Murphy in 1934 , Alexander R.Todd in 1957 and Dorothy Hodgkin in 1964.the deficiency as well as the need of the vitamins led to most of the discovery. It plays a vital role in body functioning and prevention of various kinds of disease. Due to the similarities in function as well as sources in the eight vitamins that are present in this , it is also known as Vitamin B Complex.

Source, Requirements And Importance of Vitamin B

Thiamine (vitamin B1)

Source :

Thiamine is found to be present                                                         indried milk (8%DV),                           beef(8%DV),

liver,

legumes(28%DV),

peas(30%DV) ,

pork (33%DV)

,eggs, oats(8%DV),

oranges(8%DV),

fish(17%DV),

brown rice (8%DV),

seafood (25%DV) and so on.

Requirement 🙁 Daily intake)

Infants 0-6months :-          0.2mg

Infants 7-12 months :-       0.3mg

Children 1-3 years:-           0.5m

Children 4-8years :-           0.6mg

Boys 9-13 years :-              0.9mg

Men 14 years & older :-     1.2mg

Girls 9-13 years:-                0.9mg

Women 14-18years:-          1mg

women over 18 years:-      1.1mg

Pregnant women:-              1.4mg

Breast -feeding women :-  1.5mg

Importance :

helps in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy sources. Functioning of the nervous system, maintains health. It also has roles in the brain, heart and kidney.

Riboflavin(Vitamin B2)

Source :

Riboflavin is found in tofu(12%DV), milk(16%DV), fish(16%DV), mushrooms(9%DV), pork(19%DV), spinach(32%DV), almonds(18%DV), nuts(%DV), dairy products, meats(18%DV), brewer’s yeast(320%DV), Brussel sprouts(9%DV), wheat germ(38%DV), wild rice(8%DV), mushrooms(9%DV), soybeans(38%DV), green leafy vegetables(32%DV), whole grain(8%DV) and enriched cereals(85%DV), bread(8%DV), avocados(10%DV), and eggs(15%DV).

Requirement :-

Infants Age: 0 – 12 months: 0.3 to 0.4 mg/d

Children Age 1 – 9 years: 0.5 to 0.6 mg/dl

Adults 19 – 70 years: Women: 0.9 to 1.1 mg/dl

Adolescents  10 – 18 years: 0.9 to 1.3 mg/dl

Men: 1.1 – 1.3 mg/d. (deficiency in intake less than 0.6 mg/d)

Importance:-

It helps in cellular functioning, energy production, helps in the vision, also helps in metabolism of lipids and protein.

Niacin(Vitamin B3)

Source:-

Niacin could be found in yeast(140%DV), meat(36%DV), poultry(8%DV), red fish (e.g., tuna, salmon)(54%DV), Milk(1%DV), green leafy vegetables(3%DV), cereals(31%DV), legumes(6%DV), seeds(13%DV).

 Requirement– (daily)

6–12 months :-5mg

1–3 years      :-9mg

4–6 years      :-11mg

7–10 years   :-13mg

11–14 years :-

male    :-      15mg

Female   :-      14mg

15–17 years :-

Male     :-   18mg

Female  :-  14mg

 18 years and older :-

Male    :-  18mg

Female:-  14mg

Pregnant :-  14mg

Breast-feedings :-  16mg

Importance:

It has a part in improvement of health,good for skin conditions also has a role lowering bad cholesterol (LDL).

Pantothenic Acid(Vitamin B5)

Source:

broccoli                                                                         (5%DV)

sweet potatoes                                                             (7%DV)

corn                                                                                (21%DV)

milk                                                                                (9%DV)

tomatoes                                                                        (22%DV)

lentils                                                                              (82%DV)

cauliflower                                                                     (7%DV)

mushrooms                                                                    (26%DV)

salmon                                                                             (30%DV)

lobster                                                                              (33%DV)

shellfish                                                                            (12%DV),

avocado                                                                             (20%DV)

split peas                                                                           (27%DV),

soybeans                                                                            (20%DV)

whole-grain bread and cereals                                      (8%DV)

chicken                                                                               (13%DV)

Requirement :-

Infants 0-6 months :- 1.7 mg

infants 7-12 months :-1.8 mg

men & women 14 years and older :- 5 mg

pregnant women :-6 mg breast-feeding women:- 7 mg.

Importance:

It has a role in the formation of hormones, red blood cells. Coenzyme A is synthesized which helps to convert fats to fatty acids as well as cholesterol, metabolism of certain drugs occur.

Pyridoxine(Vitamin B6)

Source :

chicken                                                       (29%DV),

tofu                                                              (6%DV)

pork                                                             (18%DV)

peanuts                                                       (6%DV)

potatoes                                                       (25%DV)

avocado                                                        (6%DV)

soyabeans                                                   (6%DV)

oats                                                               (6%DV)

bananas                                                        (25%DV)

pistachios                                                      (6%DV).

Requirement :- (Daily)

Birth to 6 months :- 0.1 mg

Infants 7–12 months:- 0.3 mg

Teens 14–18 years (boys):- 1.3 mg

Teens 14–18 years (girls):- 1.2 mg

Pregnant teens and women:- 1.9 mg

Breastfeeding women and teens:- 2.0 mg

Importance:

digestive enzymes functioning is maintained, and helps in maintaining hemoglobin levels. Also for growth and synthesis of neurotransmitters.

Biotin(Vitamin B7)

Source:-

wholemeal bread(%DV), salmon(%DV), pork(%DV), sardines(%DV), mushroom(%DV) and cauliflower(%DV), carrot(%DV),spinach(%DV), broccoli(%DV), mushrooms(%DV), sweet potato(%DV), bananas(%DV), avocados(%DV) and raspberries(%DV), almonds,(%DV), peanuts(%DV), walnuts(%DV), sunflowers seeds(%DV), milk(%DV), cheddar cheese(%DV),tuna(%DV), sardines(%DV), oysters(%DV), eggs(%DV) and meat(%DV).

Requirement :-

Infants    0–6 months:-     5 mg

Infants 7–12 months:-     6mg

Adolescents   14–18 years :-         25mg

Adults     

19 years and older                 :-          30mg

Pregnancy                              :-           30mg

Breast-feeding                      :-            35mg

Importance:

It helps in the metabolism responsible for various enzymes. It also showed cell growth and development of hair, nails.

Folic Acid(Vitamin B9)

Source :-

Peanut(23%DV),

Sunflower seeds(16%DV),

Cereals(90%DV),

Cornmeal(42%DV),

Fresh fruits and juices such as avocado(20%DV),

Papaya(27%DV),

Kiwi 10(%DV)and orange(14%DV),

Whole grains(21%DV),

Soya seeds(27%DV),

Meat(13%DV).

Requirement :-

Infants 0 to 6 months:-    65 mcg (adequate intake)

Infants 7 to 12 months: –  80 mcg (adequate intake))

Teens 14 to 18 years:-      400 mcg (RDA)

Men & women:

19 years and older: 400 mcg (RDA)

Pregnant women:-            600 mcg (RDA)

Breastfeeding women:-    500 mcg (RDA)

Importance:

It plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, and helps for the maturation of red blood cells. Normal functioning in the body. Metabolism of various amino acids also occur.

Cobalamin(vitamin B12)

Source :-

clams(35%DV), fish(104%DV), crab(25%DV), low-fat beef(58%DV), fortified cereal(38%DV), fortified soymilk(28%DV), fortified tofu(16%DV), low-fat dairy(19%DV), cheese(23%DV),eggs(18%DV), sardines(56%DV), tuna(104%DV), trout(146%DV), salmon(25%DV), almonds(18%DV).

Requirement :-

0–6 months:- 0.4 mcg

7–12 months:- 0.5 mcg

1–3 years:-0.9 mcg

4–8 years:-1.2 mcg

9–13 years:- 1.8 mcg

14 years and older:- 2.4 mcg

pregnancy:- 2.6 mcg.

During lactation:- 2.8 mcg

Importance : 

It helps in prevention of anemia by the formation of red blood cells . Also helps in the production of serotonin which regulates the mood swings. Involved in synthesis of DNA, and helps in bone health. Improve memory, lower risk of heart disease.

There are some deficiency which can be seen due to the lackness of Vitamin B

DEFECIENCY AND SYMPTOMS:

Thiamine Deficiency :

It will lead to weakness, pain in the limbs, shortness of breath,  loss of appetite, swollen feet or legs.

Riboflavin Deficiency:

skin disorders occur, hyperemia (excess blood) , edema of the mouth as well as in the throat, angular stomatitis (lesions at the corners of the mouth), sore throat,cheilosis (swollen, cracked lips), hair loss, reproductive problems.

Niacin Deficiency:

scaly pigmented rash on skin exposed to sunlight, mouth being swollen with bright red tongue, vomiting and diarrhea headache,apathy(lack interest), fatigue, depression, disorientation.

Biotin Deficiency:

Red rashes on the skin( especially the face), dry or scaly type of skin,dry eyes,brittle hair or hair loss,fatigue,insomnia(sleeping disorder),loss of appetite, fatigue.

Pantothenic Acid Deficiency:

It is rare, may include fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, vomiting, stomach pains, burning feet, and upper respiratory infections. (in rare cases)

Pyridoxine Deficiency:

Anaemia,Skin disorders such as seborrheic dermatitis,Inflammation of the mouth (oral ulcers),Soreness and cracks at the corners of the mouth, chapped lips,Tingling or numbness sensation (in hands, feet),Irritability, confusion and depression

Folate Or Folic Acid Deficiency:

AnaemiaIncreased risk of birth defect (in pregnancy),Mood changes (such as irritability, forgetfulness), alos Sore mouth and diarrhoea.

Cobalamin Deficiency:

Anaemia, Tingling or numbness sensation in hands and feet, Memory lapses,Mood changes such as mental confusion,poor muscle coordination (difficulty in walking),skin rashes,cracks around the mouth,scaly skin on the lips,swollen ,tongue,fatigue,weakness,irritability or depression,nausea,abdominal cramps, diarrhea, constipation.

What to Take for Deficiency?

Neurobion Forte :

a multivitamin which mainly had vitamin B1,Vitamin B2,Vitamin B3 ,Vitamin B6,Vitamin B12,also calcium Pantothenate. Helps in improving the immune system and boosts energy.

Direction of Use:

Take after consulting a doctor. Before or after food, it could be chewed with liquid and swallowed.

Overdose And Adverse Reaction:

Sensory neuropathy could be a reason, chromaturia( urine reddish in colour) , gastrointestinal problems.

Contraindication And Drug Interaction

Hypersensitivity towards the excipients used. When used with Levodopa , the action of levodopa is reduced.

Beplex Forte: 

It is also a multivitamin tablet ,used  for treating anemia ,helps from oxidative stress, keeps skin healthy. Contains Vitamin B1,Vitamin B2,Vitamin B3 , Vitamin B5,Vitamin B6, Vitamin B7,Vitamin B12 including Vitamin C.

Direction of Use: 

advised to consult your doctor before taking.taken usually after meals.

Overdose And Adverse Reaction:

Overdose can lead to blood pressure fluctuations,loss over movement control, trouble breathing.

Contraindication And Drug Interaction:

If allergic to any excipients,has a surgery planned (prior to stop), it can also interact with other drugs. Patients with liver impairment,peptic ulcers should be careful before starting.

A-Z :

It is used as a multivitamin when having a poor diet,usually taken to maintain good health. Used for treating anemia caused due to folic acid deficiency.

Direction of Use: 

advised to take after visiting a doctor. Taken before or after food and usually taken in the morning.

Overdose And Adverse Reaction:

Can cause Diarrhea,constipation,mood swings, excessive thirst.

Contraindication And Drug Interaction:

Avoid taking in an empty stomach,if allergic to any excipients,has high calcium levels,bleeding disorders.

Vitamin B Complex:

A non antioxidant vitamin.containing Vitamin B3,Vitamin B9 and Vitamin B12. It is used with patients having Osteoarthritis.

Direction of Use:

advised to take after visiting a doctor. Taken before or after food and usually taken in the morning.

Overdose And Adverse Reaction:

Feeling Of General Discomfort,Skin Rash,Sleep Disorder,Abdominal Bloating,Confusion,Decreased Appetite, DepressionGas, Erythema Or Skin Redness,Irritability,Itching,Nausea,Over Excitement,Taste Impairment.

Contraindication And Drug Interaction:

Results in sickle cell anemia, chance of high amount of oxalic acid in urine. Altretamine,cisplatin had shown certain interaction, also levodopa.

Conclusion:

Vitamin B  or Vitamin B complex is an essential vitamin that plays a great role in the normal functioning of the body.It contains eight Vitamin under it ,which is the major vitamins present out of Thirteen overall vitamin present. As it is really important for healthy body functioning,it is better to have it sufficiently from the diet taken. Deficiency of each vitamin can lead to respective symptoms and problems. Always advised to take medicines after consulting a doctor.