Difference between HIV and AIDS
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is not one disease however a collection of diseases. Not all the people WHO develop AIDS suffer from similar diseases however there square measure bound uncommon diseases that occur terribly overtimes in AIDS. That is why it’s called a syndrome. This syndrome is caused by a virus that affects the body’s system (defense mechanism) making it vulnerable to infections and cancers to that it’d unremarkably be resistant. The virus is by international consensus referred to as Human immunological disorder Virus (HIV).
There are concerning 33 million folks in the world living with HIV. There are 16,000 new infections everyday, which square measure in ladies and youngsters. 90% of all HIV infections square measure in the developing world. The first report of HIV infection in Republic of India was in 1986 from Chennai. Since then, there has been an ominous increase in the prevalence of HIV and in line with National AIDS management Organization; it is 2.4% as of might 1999.
Cause and Pathogenesis:
How will HIV weaken our Immune system?
Our blood normally contains white blood cells and red blood cells. Normally the white cells fight off and kill any germs that enter our bodies. This they do by eating up the germs and by manufacturing chemicals called Antibodies that kill them. In this way our bodies repel several different germs and that we keep healthy. HIV weakens our immune system by entering and eventually destroying our white cells. As additional and more white cells square measure killed the body becomes less and less ready to repel the varied germs that unremarkably live around and at intervals our bodies all the time. Finally people with AIDS die of one of a spread of diseases, common or rare that their bodies cannot resist.
Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is happiness to the lentil virus cluster. The mode of transmission is through unprotected penetrative sex (anal, vaginal, and oral), blood to blood Contact such as transfusion, organ transplant and thru blood products. It can be transmitted by Associate in Nursing HIV infected mother to her baby throughout the ante partum amount, intra partum or through breast milk. Hence, the body fluids that can transmit HIV square measure blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. In India, 80% of infection is through heterosexual transmission. 90% of infections square measure among young persons in the cohort of 15-39 years.
Outside the human body the virus is well killed but once within the body it’s deadly. In fact the virus is killed outside even by just laundry with antiseptic lotions. Once the virus enters the body though it gets absorbed on to the CD4 Cells. The virus (RNA) enters the cell and is transcribed to provirus DNA by the reverse polymerase accelerator. This then enters the nucleus of the CD4 lymphocyte cells and gets integrated into the cell deoxyribonucleic acid therefore hijacking the human cell, which is born-again into a plant and starts producing new HIV particles. These enter other CD4 Cells and destroy them and eventually the CD4 Cell count decreases to but 200/mm. Since lymphocytes are accountable to a sizable extent for maintaining the body’s immune defences the destruction of those cells ends up in a lowering of the body’s immune standing. Therefore the person succumbs to several timeserving infections. Caused by organisms which might not be virulent enough to provide the unwellness in people with traditional immunity. This end stage condition is illustrious as AIDS. It takes anywhere from 3-10 years for a person to progress from HIV seropositivity to AIDS.
Symptoms and Signs :
Within 2-3 months of deed HIV, one goes through a seroconversion illness, where the patient develops fever, malaise, rash and lymphadenopathy (glandular swellings). The patient recovers in a few days and progresses to ensuing stage.
Asymptomatic stage (may last from 2-10 years). During this stage the patient is free of all symptoms and aside from the actual fact that he remains HIV Positive, there are no external signs of unwellness.
Persistent Generalized Lymphadenopathy (Glandular Swellings over different areas of the body).
At this stage the individuals develop generalized pathology (cervical, auxiliary, and inguinal). The lymph nodes can be painless and therefore the diagnostic assay can reveal non-specific dysplasia.
Patients might belong to any of the Sub-Groups and may progress between teams.
Constitutional symptoms like weight loss, persistent fever, cough, diarrhea.
Neurological manifestations like dementedness, peripheral neuritis.
The most common in India square measure wasting disease, or pharyngeal mycosis, Tina infection of the skin, extra pulmonary TB, herpes zoster, herpes simplex, PCP, CMV redness, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis and cryptosporidium diarrhea.
Secondary cancers like Kaposi’s sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Lymphoid opening inflammation.
Investigations and Diagnosis:
The most popular diagnostic tools square measure those wherever the precise antibodies to the virus square measure detected – accelerator connected immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and Western Blot. It takes 6-12 weeks for the antibodies to develop. This period is thought as Window amount wherever the person might be infected however the check reads negative.
To identify the infection at this era there’s a diagnostic tool referred to as enzyme Chain Reaction (PCR) that identifies the infective agent ordering from virtually forty eight hours once infection. This is a fashionable test and wishes a well equipped science laboratory and well-trained technicians. ELISA is a straightforward fast check, which is low cost and sensitive. The only disadvantage is that it’s going to show false positive results. It is ideal to verify the results with Western blot, which is 100% specific.
To monitor the progress of the disease, tests like CD4 or CD8 Estimation and Plasma Viral hundreds square measure performed.
Treatment and Prognosis:
- Asymptomatic Stage: Psychosocial supportive counsel, nutritional counsel, antioxidants, vitamins, exercise, sleep, yoga, and meditation.
- Early Symptomatic Stage: All opportunistic infections should be treated and in addition the patient should run the supportive medical aid, counseling and aliment and anti-oxidant supplementation made public higher than.
- If the CD4 count is below 200 then it is best to begin antiretroviral medication. Several medication square measures currently obtainable however the most usually used medication embodies NRTI, Lamivudine etc. But these might would like to be taken life long, they have side effects and square measure big-ticket. But they greatly improve the quality of life and folks with AIDS square measure currently living longer. Anti retroviral medication square measure not a cure for HIV infection. At this stage Chemoprophylaxis to prevent timeserving infections additionally ought to run.
There is no cure or a vaccine for HIV. The only weapon we’ve got is interference. This can be achieved by adopting the subsequent perceptional measures.
- be faithful to your partner.
- Avoid unprotected sex with casual partners. Practice safe sex employing a condom.
- Make certain the blood for transfusion is checked for HIV and is given by a relative or friend.
- Make certain the needles used for the injections square measure sterile.
- Difference between HIV and AIDS, HIV Cause and Pathogenesis, How will HIV weaken our Immune system?
- Hiv Symptoms and Signs , HIV Investigations and Diagnosis, HIV Treatment and Prognosis
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- What are HIV and AIDS?, HIV Facts on Symptoms, Signs, Treatment and Prevention for HIV
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