Kidney Stones Causes and Treatment

Kidney Stones Causes and Treatment

Kidney Stones Causes and Treatment:

Introduction :

Stones in the kidney are known as lithiasis or urinary organ calculi. Stones can additionally be shaped within the bladder and therefore the ureters. It is important to guage and treat excretory organ stones as a result of will they cause infection as a result of stasis and obstruction and if untreated can attain harm to kidneys and renal disorder.

The common type of stones area unit fabricated from Ca, calcium phosphate, calcium salt and metallic element ammonia phosphate. The other less common varieties area unit fabricated from diammonium orthophosphate, magnesium phosphate, cystine, urate and organic compound.


Renal stones area of common in men (80%) than women (20%).

It affects two out of each thousand individuals.

It is more common in persons between 30-50 yrs.

Children and teenagers will additionally be affected.

Cause and Pathogenesis

Generally stones kind due to super saturation of the substances within the pee that ends up in crystal formation. The crystals act as a nidus for further accumulation of the substances leading to increase within the size of the stones. There are bound factors that incline to stone formation.

They are:

  • Genetic predisposition.
  • Excess of calcium or alternative minerals in the diet.
  • Excess of Uric acid, Vitamin C, Vitamin D within the diet.
  • Dehydration leading to concentrated pee.
  • High environmental temperature causing sweating and fluid loss.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Bowel illnesss like ulcerative inflammation and Crohns disease, illeal bypass for obesity.
  • Renal tubular pathology.
  • Diets rich in fruits and vegetables that contain salt.
  • Lack of factors that inhibit stone formation like citrate and metallic element.
  • Receptive hypercalciuria-resorption of calcium from the bone into the blood.
  • Renal hypercalciuria- the kidneys filter out the calcium however don’t resort.


Kidney stones area unit usually painless and while not any symptoms. Many of them pass off in the pee. However some stones cannot pass out of the system:

  • Extreme pain in your back or side that cannot depart.
  • Blood in your urine.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Vomiting.
  • Urine that smells bad or appearance cloudy.
  • A burning feeling when you urinate.
  • Increased frequency, urgency or hesitancy when passing pee.


Some or all of the following tests could also be necessary:

  • Urine Exams.
  • A plain X-ray of the abdomen.
  • An ultrasound as a small variety area unit radiolucent stones might not be visible straightforward X-ray and might be picked up by an ultrasound examination of the abdomen.
  • Abdominal CT scan.
  • Stone Analysis.


The type of stone, in size and content, determines the nature of treatment.

Usually, if the stone is less than 5mm in size, there is an honest chance of it passing with none surgical intervention. If it is very painful, painkillers may be prescribed. Depending on the sort of stone, medication may additionally be prescribed.

If the kidney stone is larger than 1/2 in. (or 10mm) in diameter it’ll seemingly have to be compelled to be either removed by surgery (open or endoscopic) or by lithotripsy.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

The advantages area unit little incision within the flank through that AN medical instrument is passed into the excretory organ and therefore the stone is removed. Stones larger than 3 cm will be removed by this methodology.

Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy:

In this method high energy shock waves area unit accustomed break the stones. The stones are crushed into sand like fragments that after pass out in the pee over an amount of even months.


Open surgery may be necessary in but five-hitter of cases. The surgery consists in opening the excretory organ to take away the stones. This leaves a long scar. The recovery takes about four to six weeks. In most cases simpler procedures area unit opted for.


If the stone is found in the lower a part of the uretra, laser will be used on the trail of the duct to vaporize the stone whereas in place.

Litho last:

This uses air pressure to interrupt the stone. The fragments are removed victimization a extractor or flushed with water and sucked out.


Drink more water. Try to drink twelve full glasses of water every day. This may facilitate the flushing away of stones.

You can take juices however water is preferred. Limit tea and coffee intake as this might cause you to lose fluid content.

your diet has been changes to reckoning on the sort of stone.

Related Keywords:

  • Kidney Stones Causes and Treatment, Kidney Stones Cause and Pathogenesis
  • Kidney Stones Symptoms, Kidney Stones Treatment, Prevention for Kidney Stones
  • What are the first signs of kidney stones?, Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stones
  • What are the types of kidney stones?, What foods cause kidney stones?
  • Steps for preventing kidney stones, What can I drink to dissolve kidney stones?
  • Home Remedies for Kidney Stones

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