What is Parkinson’s disease

What is Parkinson’s disease

Nowadays, diseases have become a common thing. Almost every person is having some problem with their body. With time our lifestyle is also changing, which has resulted in a stressful and unhealthy life cycle. People these days don’t get time to have a proper meal or a sound sleep, which abruptly affects their body clock. Our daily habits have become the main reason for many diseases. One of those diseases is Parkinson’s disease.

What is Parkinson’s disease? 

 Parkinson’s disease is a progressive systems Nervosum disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in only one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Although paralysis agitans cannot be cured, medications might significantly improve your symptoms. Occasionally, your doctor may suggest surgery to manage certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

In the early stages of paralysis agitans, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms might not swing once you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Paralysis agitans symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Symptoms

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease develop gradually. They often start with a small tremor in one hand and a sense of stiffness within the body.

Over time, other symptoms develop, and a few people will have dementia. Most of the symptoms result from a fall in dopamine levels within the brain. One study, based in France, found in 2015 that men are 50 percent more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than women overall, but the danger for ladies appears to extend with age.

In most people, symptoms appear at the age of 60 years or over. However, in 5–10 percent of cases, they seem earlier. When Parkinson’s disease develops before the age of fifty years, this is often called “early-onset” Parkinson’s disease.

Early signs

Here are some early signs of Parkinson’s disease:

  • Movement: There could also be a tremor within the hands.

Coordination: A reduced sense of coordination and balance can cause people to drop items they’re holding. They’ll be more likely to fall.

  • Gait: The person’s posture may change in order that they lean forward slightly as if they were hurrying. They’ll also develop a shuffling gait.
  • Facial expression: this will become fixed, thanks to changes within the nerves that control facial muscles.
  • Voice: There could also be a tremor within the voice, or the person may speak more softly than before.
  • Handwriting: this might become more cramped and smaller.
  • Sense of smell: A loss of sense of smell is often an early sign.
  • Sleep problems: These are a feature of Parkinson’s, and that they could also be an early sign. Restless legs syndrome may contribute to the present.

Other common symptoms include:

  • Mood changes, including depression
  • Difficulty chewing and swallowing
  • Problems with urination
  • Constipation
  • Skin problems
  • Sleep problems

REM sleep disorder: Authors of a study published in 2015 describe another neurological condition, paradoxical sleep disorder, as a “powerful predictor” for Parkinson’s disease and a few other neurological conditions.

Many people think that the first signs of Parkinson’s are normal signs of aging. For this reason, they’ll not seek help. However, treatment is more likely to be effective if an individual takes it early within the development of Parkinson’s disease. For this reason, it’s important to urge an early diagnosis if possible.

If treatment doesn’t start until the person has clear symptoms, it’ll not be as effective. Moreover, a variety of other conditions can have similar symptoms.

These include:

  • Drug-induced Parkinsonism
  • Head trauma
  • Encephalitis
  • Stroke
  • Lewy body dementia
  • Corticobasal degeneration
  • Multiple system atrophy
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy

The similarity to other conditions can make it hard for doctors to diagnose Parkinson’s disease within the early stages.

Movement symptoms may start on one side of the body and gradually affect each side.

Causes and risk factors

Scientists aren’t sure what causes Parkinson’s disease. It happens when nerve cells die within the brain. Low dopamine levels: Scientists have linked low or falling levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, with Parkinson’s disease. This happens when cells that produce dopamine die within the brain.

Dopamine plays a task in sending messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. Low dopamine levels can make it harder for people to regulate their movements. As dopamine levels fall during a person with Parkinson’s disease, their symptoms gradually become more severe.

  • Low norepinephrine levels: Norepinephrine, another neurotransmitter, is vital for controlling many automatic body functions, like the circulation of the blood.

In Parkinson’s disease, the nerve endings that produce this neurotransmitter die. This might explain why people with Parkinson’s disease experience not only movement problems but also fatigue, constipation, and postural hypotension, when vital sign changes on standing up, resulting in light-headedness.

  • Lewy bodies: an individual with Parkinson’s disease may have clumps of protein in their brain, referred to as Lewy bodies. Lewy body dementia may be a different condition, but it’s linked with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Genetic factors: Sometimes, Parkinson’s disease appears to run in families, but it’s not always hereditary. Researchers try to spot specific genetic factors that will cause Parkinson’s disease, but it appears that not one but a variety of things are responsible.

For this reason, they think that a mixture of genetic and environmental factors may cause the condition. Possible environmental factors could include exposure to toxins, like pesticides, solvents, metals, and other pollutants.

Autoimmune factors: Scientists reported in JAMA in 2017 that they had found evidence of a possible genetic link between Parkinson’s disease and autoimmune conditions, like atrophic arthritis. In 2018, researchers investigating health records in Taiwan found that folks with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) had a 1.37-higher chance of also having Parkinson’s disease than people without ARD.

Prevention

It is impossible to stop Parkinson’s disease, but research has shown that some lifelong habits may help to scale back the danger.

Turmeric:

This spice contains curcumin, an antioxidant ingredient. It’s going to help to stop the clumping of a protein involved in Parkinson’s disease, a minimum of one laboratory study has found.

Flavonoids:

Consuming another sort of antioxidant — flavonoids — may lower the danger of developing Parkinson’s disease, consistent with research. Flavonoids are present in berries, apples, some vegetables, tea, and red grapes.

Avoiding reheated cooking oils: Scientists have linked toxic chemicals, referred to as aldehydes, to Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases, and a few cancers.

Heating certain oils — like sunflower-seed oil — to a particular temperature, then using them again can cause aldehydes to occur in those oils.

Avoiding toxins:

Exposure to herbicides, pesticides, and other toxins may increase the danger of neurological diseases like Parkinson’s disease. People should take precautions when using these sorts of products, for instance, by using protective clothing.

Parkinson’s disease may be a lifelong condition that involves neurological changes within the body. These changes can make it harder for an individual to function in a lifestyle. However, medications and other sorts of therapy are available for treating Parkinson’s disease and reducing the symptoms.

Because the explanation for Parkinson’s is unknown, proven ways to stop the disease also remain a mystery. Some research has shown that regular aerobics might reduce the danger of paralysis agitans.

Some other research has shown that folks who consume caffeine — which is found in coffee, tea and cola — get paralysis agitans less often than those that don’t drink it. Tea is additionally associated with a reduced risk of developing paralysis agitans. However, it’s still not known whether caffeine actually protects against getting Parkinson’s or is said in another way. Currently, there’s not enough evidence to suggest caffeinated drinking beverages to guard against Parkinson’s.

Current treatment can relieve symptoms, but scientists hope that gene therapy or somatic cell therapy will at some point be ready to do quite this and restore function that the person has already lost.

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