Why does cancer happen and what can we do to prevent it?

Why does cancer happen

What Is Cancer?

Cancer is a broad term that involves the uncontrollable and abnormal growth of cells that has the potential of spreading to another body. The cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Science does not get a cure for cancer still in this modern world. so, it’s very much essential to keep an eye on cancer symptoms & signs.

Since Cancer occurs in the cells it can potentially begin anywhere in the whole body. The usual function of the human body includes the daily division of the cells to produce new cells that can replace the damaged or dead cells. But, when cancer develops this process is unable to function.

An abnormal growth begins to be noticed where more damaged cells survive when they should die therefore making no new room for the new cells. However, the new cells are formed regardless and these excess new cells can form growths like tumours.

Tours have the ability to invade other parts of the body. As the tumour grows some cancer cells break off and travel to other tissues through the blood or via the lymph systems, forming new tumours away from the original. These apply for malignant tumours.

Unlike malignant tumours, benign tumours do not spread. They can sometimes be larger than expected. If removed they don’t usually grow back while malignant might. Metastasis is the spread of malignant tumour cells from a primary neoplasm to distant parts of the body and is a major cause of death from cancer.

Types Of Cancer:

There are over 100 different types of cancers. They are usually named after the organs or tissues that they affect also. Some of them are:

Bladder Cancer:

Bladder cancer can develop when the cells in the bladder develop mutations in their DNA. There are three different types of bladder cancer: Urothelial Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma as well as Adenocarcinoma.

Bladder cancer symptoms :

Bladder cancer can be detected if the following symptoms are visible:

  • Blood in urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Painful urination
  • Back pain


Factors that effectively may cause bladder cancer:

  • smoking
  • increasing age
  • Exposure to chemicals like arsenic and chemicals used in the manufacture of dyes and rubber etc.
  • Chronic bladder inflammation
  • It can be genetic
  • Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer
  • treatment with cyclophosphamide increases the risk
  • Radiation treatments aimed at the pelvis

It can be prevented by avoiding smoking, harmful chemicals and also a rich diet.

Breast Cancer:

Breast Cancer also begins with the unusual growth of cells that get out of control.  usually begins either in glands that make milk (lobular carcinoma) or ducts that carry it to the nipple (ductal carcinoma). It can possibly spread further than the breast into nearby lymph nodes or to other organs via the bloodstream.

Breast Cancer is prone to men and women but more commonly women. Men also constitute about 1% of the patients being affected by breast cancer.

Breast cancer symptoms:

Symptoms that may help recognise cancer:

  • A lump near your breast or underarm that lasts during your period
  • A mass or lump, even if it feels as small as a pea
  • A change in your breast’s size, shape as well as curve
  • Nipple discharge that can be bloody also clear
  • Changes in the skin of your breast or your nipple. It could be also dimpled, puckered, scaly, or inflamed.
  • Red skin on your breast or nipple
  • Changes in the shape or also position of your nipple
  • A hard, marble-sized spot under your skin


Factors that result in breast cancer (ones that cannot be controlled):

  • Age
  • Race
  • Dense breasts
  • Personal history of cancer
  • Family history
  • Genes
  • Menstrual History
  • Radiation

Ones that can be controlled: :

  • Lack of physical activity
  • Weight and diet
  • Alcohol
  • Reproductive history
  • External hormone intake

Colorectal Cancer:

Colorectal cancer is the development of cancer from the rectum. The size of the polyp correlates with the development of Cancer. If it’s 2cm or greater it has a 40% chance of transforming into cancer. If it is diagnosed and treated early while the tumour is still localised, the disease is highly curable. the tumour continues to grow, cancer can spread directly through the bowel wall to surrounding lymph nodes, tissues, and organs, as well as into the bloodstream.

Colorectal cancer symptoms:

The following occurs if there is a chance of colorectal cancer:

  • changes in bowel habits
  • blood in the stool
  • blood in faeces that makes stools look black
  • bright red blood coming from the rectum
  • pain and bloating in the abdomen
  • bloating, even without eating
  • unexplained weight loss
  • a lump in the abdomen or the back passage felt by your doctor
  • unexplained iron deficiency in men, or in women after menopause
  • Constipation or diarrhoea
  • fatigue


Factors that may cause:

  • first Radiation
  • In fact, Family History and heredity can cause cancer
  • Lifestyle (smoking and alcohol intake too)
  • Chemical exposure
  • History of surgeries like ureterosigmoidostomy
  • Diet
  • Other diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and cancers of the pancreas, breast, ovaries and uterus.

Kidney Cancer:

Kidney cancer occurs when cells become malignant and grow out of control forming a tumour. They first occur in the lining of the tiny tubules but they are usually found before they can spread.

Kidney cancer symptoms :

Visible effects of kidney cancer:

  • A lump in your side or abdomen
  • A loss of appetite
  • A pain constant pain towards your sides
  • Fever that isn’t caused by a cold or other infection and lasts longer than expected
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Swelling in your ankles or legs
  • blood in your urine
  • Anaemia
  • Weight loss


Factors that may lead to kidney cancer:

  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Certain pain medications for a prolonged time
  • Kidney diseases
  • Genetic conditions
  • Chemicals like asbestos, cadmium, benzene etc.
  • High blood pressure
  • lymphoma

Lung Cancer:

Lung Cancer can start in the lungs and eventually spread to other parts of the body. The disease starts in the bronchi or alveoli of the lungs. There are also 20 different types of Lung Cancer. The two most common types are non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer.

Lung cancer symptoms :

Things that may be caused by Lung cancer:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Coughing that doesn’t go away
  • Wheezing
  • Coughing up blood
  • Chest pain
  • Fever
  • Weight loss with or without loss of appetite
  • Hoarse voice
  • Shoulder or arm pain also the weakness
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Unusual bone pain


Reasons that may have caused as Lung cancer:

  • smoking
  • Tobacco
  • Radiation
  • Chemicals like asbestos or uranium dust
  • Previous history of diseases like scleroderma or tuberculosis.


Lymphoma begins in the lymphocytes which are in the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and other parts of the body. Due to Lymphoma, lymphocytes change and grow out of control.

Lymphoma cancer symptoms:

Things Lymphoma may lead as:

  • Swollen glands
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Itching


Factors that may lead as lymphoma:

  • Age
  • A week immune system from HIV/AIDS
  • Organ transplants
  • Have been infected with a virus such as Epstein-Barr, hepatitis C, or human T-cell leukaemia lymphoma (HTLV-1)
  • Moreover, have a close relative who had lymphoma
  • exposed to benzene or chemicals that kill bugs and weeds
  • treatment for Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • treated for cancer with radiation also

Diagnosis for cancer:

Cancer has a few ways that it can be diagnosed. There are four stages of cancer and the earliest it’s diagnosed the better. If it’s diagnosed earlier, it has a high expectancy of getting cured. Some diagnosis is:

  • Physical exams where they might look for abnormalities in the body
  • Laboratory tests such as urine and blood tests
  • Imaging tests like CT scans, bone scans, magnetic resonance imaging etc.
  • Biopsy like the collection of cells for testing

Treatment for Cancer:

Cancer can be treated in various ways and a few of the options offered are:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Bone Marrow transplant
  • Immunotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Targeted drug therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Cryoablation
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Clinical trials